Požiga protestantskih knjig v Ljubljani leta 1600 in 1601: med zgodovino in mitom

Two burnings of Protestant books in Ljubljana in 1600 and 1601: between history and myth

Avtor(ji): Vidmar, Luka
Jezik: slovenski
Vrsta gradiva: Besedilo
Leto: 2013
Založnik(i): Zveza zgodovinskih društev Slovenije, Ljubljana
Soavtor(ji): Miha Preinfalk (odg. ur.), Barbara Šterbenc Svetina (tehn. ur.), Manca Gašperšič (prev. ang.), Luka Vidmar (prev. ang.), Mina Černe (prev. ang.), Irena Žmuc (prev. ang.), Mojca Bensa (prev. ang.), Vinko Oblak (prev. it.)


  • Podroben opis
    Prispevek se ukvarja s požigoma protestantskih knjig v Ljubljani leta 1600 in 1601. Z ozirom na glavne vire
    najprej presoja njune opise v dosedanji strokovni literaturi, pa tudi v publicistiki in nacionalnem kolektivnem
    spominu. Ob tem pojasnjuje izvor napačnih podatkov in interpretacij. V nadaljevanju rekonstruira oba dogodka,
    in sicer: datum in lokacijo požigov, vsebino, jezik in količino sežganih knjig ter mesto požigov v zgodovini.

  • Vsi metapodatki
    • dcterms:identifier http://hdl.handle.net/11686/34978
    • dcterms:title
      • Požiga protestantskih knjig v Ljubljani leta 1600 in 1601: med zgodovino in mitom
      • Two burnings of Protestant books in Ljubljana in 1600 and 1601: between history and myth
    • dcterms:creator
      • Luka Vidmar
    • dcterms:subject
      • reformacija
      • protireformacija
      • požig knjig
      • Ljubljana
      • Tomaž Hren
      • Reformation
      • Counter-Reformation
      • book burning
      • Ljubljana
      • Tomaž Hren
    • dcterms:description
      • Two burnings of Protestant books in Ljubljana in 1600 and 1601 are among the most famous events in Slovenian history. However, their image in scholarly literature, journalism, and national collective memory from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day has acquired several baseless features that have no connection with historical reality whatsoever. Over the course of time, obvious factual errors (e.g. volume of books) were replaced by even graver ideological misinterpretations of two burnings, namely, that the Catholic Church alone or, rather, the Bishop of Ljubljana, Tomaž Hren, personally destroyed a few thousand Slovenian books as part of particularly brutal re-Catholicization of Slovenian provinces. In fact, the burnings were performed by a special religious commission that was executing the re- Catholicization of the town on behalf of the prince. Prince Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria appointed to the commission the highest representatives of secular and ecclesiastical authorities of the Duchy of Carniola: Bishop Tomaž Hren (as President), Governor General Georg Lenkovič and Vidame Josef Rabatta. The commissioners carried out the burnings in accordance with the authority of the prince, with the articles of the Peace of Augsburg (the principle Cuius regio, eius religio), and with the Rules of the Index librorum prohibitorum. The first burning was performed on the evening of 29 December 1600 – most probably at the pillory in the Town Market. The second was performed on 9 January 1601 – perhaps on the same place. Books were partly seized in the homes of Protestants who declined conversion and partly handed over by the converts themselves. Forbidden books in safe Catholic hands (for example, in the Diocesan Palace) were not confiscated. The commission could not have confiscated the largest Protestant book collections (such as the library of the Carniolan Estates and the books from the Church of St. Elisabeth and from the school of the Estates), because in 1598 the Evangelical Church had, in collaboration with the Estates, moved them to the Palace of the Estates. Altogether, a few carts (approximately six) filled with books were burned: a few hundreds (approximately 840–1680), but certainly not a few thousand volumes. The burnings in Ljubljana were the biggest burnings of Protestant books during Counter- Reformation in Carniola. Destroyed books (in Ljubljana and Carniola) were almost exclusively Protestant, mostly Lutheran in German and Latin, few in Italian and Slovenian. The share of Slovenian books was less than 10%, most of them being the works of Primož Trubar, the beginner of Slovenian Protestant literature. That is because Trubar was the only Slovenian Protestant placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum (1596) of Pope Clement VIII. Moreover, since Trubar was also classified an »auctor primae classis«, all his works were automatically prohibited. In accordance with the Rules of the Index, Protestant books (in Slovenian or any other language) that were not placed on the Index and did not deal with theological themes were out of harm’s way. The commission in Ljubljana (and elsewhere in Carniola) was therefore not seeking to destroy philological, rhetorical, historical, medical, musical, and similar works of Slovenian and European Protestants, for example, the first Slovenian grammar by Adam Bohorič or the multilingual dictionary by Hieronim Megiser. Also safe was Jurij Dalmatin’s complete translation of the Bible, the greatest achievement of Slovenian Reformation. In accordance with the Rules of the Index, local bishops were authorized to grant reading of such translations to pious and learned men. Bishop Hren and his successors were, in fact, issuing such permissions. The burnings in Ljubljana did not differ in any way from other contemporary book burnings either in Catholic or Protestant parts of Europe. All of them were performed by order or by authority of a prince, in close collaboration with ecclesiastical authorities, publicly, and with an emphasis on the heretical character of the books.
    • dcterms:abstract
      • Prispevek se ukvarja s požigoma protestantskih knjig v Ljubljani leta 1600 in 1601. Z ozirom na glavne vire najprej presoja njune opise v dosedanji strokovni literaturi, pa tudi v publicistiki in nacionalnem kolektivnem spominu. Ob tem pojasnjuje izvor napačnih podatkov in interpretacij. V nadaljevanju rekonstruira oba dogodka, in sicer: datum in lokacijo požigov, vsebino, jezik in količino sežganih knjig ter mesto požigov v zgodovini.
      • The paper deals with two burnings of Protestant books in Ljubljana in 1600 and 1601. With regard to the main sources, it first examines the descriptions of these events in scholarly literature, but also in journalism and Slovenian collective memory. Thus, the paper also explains the origins of misinformation and misinterpretations. In the continuation, it reconstructs both incidents by providing their date and location, the content, language and quantity of burned books, and describing their place in history.
    • dcterms:publisher
      • Zveza zgodovinskih društev Slovenije, Ljubljana
    • dcterms:contributor
      • Miha Preinfalk (odg. ur.)
      • Barbara Šterbenc Svetina (tehn. ur.)
      • Manca Gašperšič (prev. ang.)
      • Luka Vidmar (prev. ang.)
      • Mina Černe (prev. ang.)
      • Irena Žmuc (prev. ang.)
      • Mojca Bensa (prev. ang.)
      • Vinko Oblak (prev. it.)
    • dcterms:date
      • 2013
    • dcterms:type
      • Text
    • dcterms:source
      • SISTORY:ID:34978
    • dcterms:language
      • slv
    • dcterms:isPartOf